Rothschilds, is a European dynasty, of German-Jewish origin, that established European banking and finance houses starting in the late 18th century. Five lines of the Austrian branch of the family have been elevated to Austrian nobility, being given hereditary baronies of the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Francis II in 1816. Another line, of the British branch of the family, was elevated to British nobility at the request of Queen Victoria.  During the 1800s, the family is believed to have possessed by far the largest private fortune in the world as well as by far the largest fortune in modern world history. Today, Rothschild businesses are on smaller scale than they were throughout the 19th century, although they encompass a diverse range of fields, including: private asset management, financial advice, mixed farming, wine, and charities.

The first member of the family who was known to use the name "Rothschild" was Izaak Elchanan Rothschild, who was born in 1577. The name means "Red Shield" in old German. The family's ascent to international prominence began in 1744, with the birth of Mayer Amschel Rothschild in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. He was the son of Amschel Moses Rothschild, (born circa 1710),[8] a money changer who had traded with the Prince of Hesse. Born in the ghetto (called "Judengasse" or Jewish-alley) of Frankfurt, Mayer developed a finance house and spread his empire by installing each of his five sons in the five main European financial centres to conduct business. The Rothschild coat of arms  contains a clenched fist with five arrows symbolizing the five dynasties established by the five sons of Mayer Rothschild, in a reference to Psalm 127: "Like arrows in the hands of a warrior". The family motto appears below the shield: Concordia, Integritas, Industria (Harmony, Integrity, Industry).[9]

Paul Johnson writes "[T]he Rothschilds are elusive. There is no book about them that is both revealing and accurate. Libraries of nonsense have been written about them... A woman who planned to write a book entitled Lies about the Rothschilds abandoned it, saying: 'It was relatively easy to spot the lies, but it proved impossible to find out the truth'". He writes that, unlike the court Jews of earlier centuries, who had financed and managed European noble houses, but often lost their wealth through violence or expropriation, the new kind of international bank created by the Rothschilds was impervious to local attacks. Their assets were held in financial instruments, circulating through the world as stocks, bonds and debts. Changes made by the Rothschilds allowed them to insulate their property from local violence: "Henceforth their real wealth was beyond the reach of the mob, almost beyond the reach of greedy monarchs." Johnson argued that their fortune was generated to the greatest extent by Nathan Mayer Rothschild in London; however more recent research by Niall Ferguson, indicates that greater and equal profits also were realised by the other Rothschild dynasties, including James Mayer de Rothschild in Paris, Carl von Rothschild and Amschel Mayer in Frankfurt.

Another essential part of Mayer Rothschild's strategy for future success was to keep control of their banks in family hands, allowing them to maintain full secrecy about the size of their fortunes. About 1906, the Jewish Encyclopedia noted: "The practice initiated by the Rothschilds of having several brothers of a firm establish branches in the different financial centers was followed by other Jewish financiers, like the Bischoffsheims, Pereires, Seligmans, Lazards, and others, and these financiers by their integrity and financial skill obtained credit not alone with their Jewish confrères, but with the banking fraternity in general. By this means Jewish financiers obtained an increasing share of international finance during the middle and last quarter of the nineteenth century. The head of the whole group was the Rothschild family...". It also states: "Of more recent years, non-Jewish financiers have learned the same cosmopolitan method, and, on the whole, the control is now rather less than more in Jewish hands than formerly."

Mayer Rothschild successfully kept the fortune in the family with carefully arranged marriages, often between first or second cousins (similar to Royal intermarriage). By the late 19th century, however, almost all Rothschilds had started to marry outside the family, usually into the aristocracy or other financial dynasties. His sons were:

    * Amschel Mayer Rothschild (1773–1855): Frankfurt, died childless, passed to sons of Salomon and Calmann
    * Salomon Mayer Rothschild (1774–1855): Vienna
    * Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777–1836): London
    * Calmann Mayer Rothschild (1788–1855): Naples
    * Jakob Mayer Rothschild (1792–1868): Paris

The German family name "Rothschild" is pronounced approximately ROT-shillt in German, not wroth(s)-child as it is in English. The surname "Rothschild" is not uncommon in Germany, and the vast majority of the bearers of the name are unrelated to this family. Moreover, the German surnames "Rothschild" and "Rothchild" are not related to the Protestant surname "Rothchilds" from the United Kingdom.

The Rothschilds already possessed a very significant fortune before the start of Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815), and the family had gained preeminence in the bullion trade by this time. From London in 1813 to 1815, Nathan Mayer Rothschild  was instrumental in almost single-handedly financing the British war effort, and the French war effort, financing the shipment of bullion to the Duke of Wellington's armies across Europe, as well as arranging the payment of British financial subsidies to their Continental allies. In 1815 alone, the Rothschilds provided £9.8 million (in 1815 currency, about £566 million today when using the retail price index, and £6.58 billion when using average earnings) in subsidy loans to Britain's continental allies.

The brothers helped co-ordinate Rothschild activities across the continent, and the family developed a network of agents, shippers and couriers to transport gold across war-torn Europe. The family network was also to provide Nathan Rothschild time and again with political and financial information ahead of his peers, giving him an advantage in the markets and rendering the house of Rothschild still more invaluable to the British government. In one instance, the family network enabled Nathan to receive in London the news of Wellington's victory at the Battle of Waterloo a full day ahead of the government's official messengers.

Rothschild's first concern on this occasion was to the potential financial advantage on the market which the knowledge would have given him; he and his courier did not immediately take the news to the government. See a partisan French pamphlet in 1846 by John Reeves in 1887 in The Rothschilds: the Financial Rulers of Nations. It was then repeated in later popular accounts, such as that of Morton.

The basis for the Rothschild's most famously profitable move was made after the news of British victory had been made public. Nathan Rothschild calculated that the future reduction in government borrowing brought about by the peace would create a bounce in British government bonds after a two year stabilisation, which would finalise the post-war re-structuring of the domestic economy. In what has been described as one of the most audacious moves in financial history, Nathan immediately bought up the government bond market, for what at the time seemed an excessively high price, before waiting two years, then selling the bonds on the crest of short bounce in the market in 1817 for a 40% profit. Given the sheer power of leverage the Rothschild family had at its disposal, this profit was an enormous sum.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild initially started his business in Manchester England in 1806, and gradually moved it to London, where in 1809 he acquired the location at 2 New Court in St. Swithin's Lane, City of London, where it operates today; he established N. M. Rothschild and Sons in 1811. In 1818, he arranged a £5 million loan to the Prussian government, and the issuing of bonds for government loans formed a mainstay of his bank’s business. He gained a position of such power in the City of London that by 1825–6 he was able to supply enough coin to the Bank of England to enable it to avert a market liquidity crisis.

In 1816, four of the brothers were each elevated to the hereditary nobility by Austrian Emperor Francis I; moreover, a fifth brother, Nathan, was elevated in 1818. All of them were granted the Austrian title of baron or Freiherr on 29 September 1822. As such, some members of the family used "de" or "von" Rothschild to acknowledge the grant of nobility. In 1847, Sir Anthony de Rothschild, was made a hereditary baronet of the United Kingdom. In 1885, Nathan Mayer Rothschild II (1840–1915) of the London branch of the family, was granted the hereditary peerage title Baron Rothschild in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

Rothschild family banking businesses pioneered international high finance during the industrialisation of Europe and were instrumental in supporting railway systems across the world and in complex government financing for projects such as the Suez Canal. The family bought up a large proportion of the property in Mayfair, London.

Major 19th century businesses founded with Rothschild family capital include:

    * Alliance Assurance (1824) (now Royal & SunAlliance);
    * Chemin de Fer du Nord (1845)
    * The Rio Tinto mining company (1873) (From the 1880s onwards, the Rothschilds had full control of Rio Tinto)[20]
    * Eramet (1880)
    * Imerys (1880)
    * De Beers (1888)

The family funded Cecil Rhodes in the creation of the African colony of Rhodesia. From the late 1880s onwards, the family took over control of the Rio Tinto mining company.

The Japanese government approached the London and Paris families for funding during the Russo-Japanese War. The London consortium's issue of Japanese war bonds would total £11.5 million (at 1907 currency rates; £902 million in 2012 currency terms).

The name of Rothschild became synonymous with extravagance and great wealth, and the family was renowned for its art collecting, for its palaces, as well as for its philanthropy. By the end of the century, the family owned, or had built, at the lowest estimates, over 41 palaces, of a scale and luxury perhaps unparalleled even by the richest royal families. The soon to be British Prime Minister Lloyd George claimed, in 1909, that Lord Nathan Rothschild was the most powerful man in Britain.

In 1901, with no male heir, the Frankfurt House closed its doors after more than a century in business. It was not until 1989 that the family returned, when N M Rothschild & Sons, the British investment arm, plus Bank Rothschild AG, the Swiss branch, set up a representative banking office in Frankfurt.

Jewish solidarity in the family was not homogeneous. Some Rothschilds were supporters of Zionism, while other members of the family opposed the creation of the Jewish state. Some believed it would encourage anti-Semites to question the existing national identities of assimilated Jews around the rest of the world. In 1917 Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild was the addressee of the Balfour Declaration to the Zionist Federation, which committed the British government to the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people. Later, Lord Victor Rothschild was against granting asylum or even help to Jewish refugees during the Holocaust.

After the death of James Jacob de Rothschild in 1868, Alphonse Rothschild, his oldest son, who took over the management of the family bank, was the most active in support for Eretz Israel. The Rothschild family archives show that during the 1870s the family contributed nearly 500,000 francs per year on behalf of Eastern Jewry to the Alliance Israélite Universelle. Baron Edmond James de Rothschild, James Jacob de Rothschild's youngest son was a patron of the first settlement in Palestine at Rishon-LeZion, and bought from Ottoman landlords parts of the land which now makes up present-day Israel. In 1924, he established the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association (PICA), which acquired more than 125,000 acres (22,36 km²) of land and set up business ventures. In Tel Aviv, he has a road, Rothschild Boulevard, named after him as well as various localities throughout Israel which he assisted in founding including Metulla, Zikhron Ya'akov, Rishon Lezion, and Rosh Pina. A park in Boulogne-Billancourt, Paris, the Parc Edmond de Rothschild (Edmond de Rothschild Park) is also named after its founder. The Rothschilds also played a significant part in the funding of Israel's governmental infrastructure. James A. de Rothschild financed the Knesset building as a gift to the State of Israel and the Supreme Court of Israel building was donated to Israel by Dorothy de Rothschild.Outside the President's Chamber is displayed the letter Mrs. Rothschild wrote to the then current Prime Minister Shimon Peres expressing her intention to donate a new building for the Supreme Court.

Interviewed by Haaretz in 2010, Baron Benjamin Rothschild, a Swiss-based member of the banking family, said that he supported the peace process: "I understand that it is a complicated business, mainly because of the fanatics and extremists – and I am talking about both sides. I think you have fanatics in Israel... In general I am not in contact with politicians. I spoke once with Netanyahu. I met once with an Israeli finance minister, but the less I mingle with politicians the better I feel." On the subject of religious identity, he stated that he held an open-minded attitude: "We do business with all kinds of countries, including Arab countries[...] My oldest daughter's boyfriend is a Saudi. He is a great guy and if she will want to marry him, she can.

Since 2003, a group of Rothschild banks have been controlled by Rothschild Continuation Holdings, a Swiss-registered holding company (under the chairmanship of Baron David René de Rothschild). Rothschild Continuation Holdings is in turn controlled by Concordia BV, a Dutch-registered master holding company. Concordia BV is managed by Paris Orléans S.A., a French-registered holding company. Paris Orléans S.A. is ultimately controlled by Rothschild Concordia SAS, a Rothschild's family holding company. Rothschild & Cie Banque  controls Rothschild banking businesses in France and continental Europe, while Rothschilds Continuation Holdings AG controls a number of Rothschild banks elsewhere, including N M Rothschild & Sons  in London. Twenty percent of Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG was sold in 2005 to Jardine Strategic, which is a subsidiary of Jardine, Matheson & Co. of Hong Kong. In November 2008, Rabobank  Group, the leading investment and commercial bank in the Netherlands, acquired 7.5% of Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG, and Rabobank and Rothschild entered into a co-operation agreement in the fields of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) advisory and Equity Capital Markets advisory in the food and agribusiness sectors.  It was believed that the move was intended to help Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG gain access to a wider capital pool, enlarging its presence in East Asian markets.

Paris Orléans S.A. is a financial holding company listed on Euronext Paris and controlled by the French and English branch of the Rothschild family. Paris Orléans is the flagship of the Rothschild banking Group and controls the Rothschild Group’s banking activities including N M Rothschild & Sons and Rothschild & Cie Banque. It has over 2000 employees. Directors of the company include Eric de Rothschild, Robert de Rothschild, and Count Philippe de Nicolay.

N M Rothschild & Sons, English investment bank does most of its business as a mergers and acquisitions advisor. In 2004, the investment bank withdrew from the gold market, a commodity the Rothschild bankers had traded in for two centuries. In 2006, it ranked second in UK M&A with deals totalling $104.9 billion.[45] In 2006, it publicly recorded a pre-tax annual profit of £83.2 million with assets of £5.5 billion.[46]

Today, the price of gold is still fixed, twice a day at 10.30 am and 3.00 pm at the premises of N M Rothschild by the world's main Bullion Houses - Deutsche Bank, HSBC, ScotiaMocatta and Societe Generale. Informally, the gold fixing provides a recognized rate that is used as a benchmark for pricing the majority of gold products and derivatives throughout the world's markets. Every day at 10.30 and 15.00 local time, five representatives of investment banks meet in a small room at Rothschild's London headquarters on St Swithin's Lane. In the centre is the chairperson, who is by tradition appointed by the Rothschild bank, although the bank itself has largely withdrawn from the trading.

Edmond de Rothschild Group
In 1953, one Swiss member of the family, Edmond Adolphe de Rothschild (1926–1997), founded the LCF Rothschild Group (now Edmond de Rothschild Group), based in Geneva, with €100 billion in assets, which today extends to 15 countries across the world. Although this Group is primarily a financial entity, specialising in asset management and private banking, its activities also cover mixed farming, luxury hotels, and yacht racing. Edmond de Rothschild Group's committee is currently being chaired by Benjamin de Rothschild, Baron Edmond's son.

In late 2010, Baron Benjamin Rothschild said that the family had been unaffected by the financial crisis of 2007–2010, due to their conservative business practices: "We came through it well, because our investment managers did not want to put money into crazy things." He added that the Rothschilds were still a small-scale, traditional family business, and took greater care over their clients' investments than American companies, adding: "The client knows we will not speculate with his money".

Edmond de Rothschild group includes these companies.
    * Banque privée Edmond de Rothschild - Swiss private banking firm
    * Compagnie Financière Edmond de Rothschild - French private bank
    * La Compagnie Benjamin de Rothschild
    * Cogifrance - Real estate
    * Compagnie Vinicole Baron Edmond de Rothschild - Wine making capital fund

Prominent lineal descendants of Mayer Amschel Rothschild include amongst many others:
    * Major Alexander Karet, (1905–1976)
    * Princess Agnès de La Tour d'Auvergne-Lauraguais, (born 1972)
    * Prince Alexandre Louis Philippe Marie Berthier, (1883–1918), died fighting in World War I
    * Albert Salomon von Rothschild (1844–1911), the once majority shareholder of Creditanstalt
    * Alfred Charles de Rothschild (20 July 1842 – 31 January 1918)
    * Alice Charlotte von Rothschild (1847–1922) close friend of Queen Victoria
    * Aline Caroline de Rothschild (1865–1909), French socialite
    * Alice Rothschild (1985-), a Rothschild and the partner of Zac Goldsmith, after his divorce of Sheherazade Ventura-Bentley
    * Lady Aline Caroline Cholmondeley (1916–)[citation needed]
    * Baroness Afdera Franchetti (born c. 1931), a former wife of Henry Fonda, from the noble Italian Jewish Franchetti family
    * Baroness Alix Hermine Jeannette Schey de Koromla (1911–1982)
    * Alphonse James de Rothschild (1827–1905)
    * Amschel Mayor James Rothschild (1955–1996, Paris), patron of motor racing
    * Princess Andréa de La Tour d'Auvergne-Lauraguais (born Paris 1972)[citation needed]
    * Anthony Gustav de Rothschild (1887–1961), horse-breeder
    * Anthony James de Rothschild (born 1977)
    * Anselm von Rothschild (1803–1874), Austrian banker
    * Anselm Alexander Carl de Rothschild (1835–1854)[citation needed]
    * Sir Anthony de Rothschild, 1st Baronet (1810–1876)
    * Antoine Armand Odélric Marie Henri de Gramont, 13th Duke of Gramont, (1951–)
    * Alain James de Rothschild (1910–1982)[citation needed]
    * Lady Barbara Marie-Louise Constance Berry (born 1935)
    * Count Armand de Cossé-Brissac (1967–)
    * Miriam Caroline Alexandrine de Rothschild
    * Lord Charles Robert Archibald Grant
    * Ariane de Rothschild
    * Ariella de Rothschild
    * Arthur de Rothschild (1851–1903)
    * Benjamin de Rothschild (born 1963, Paris)
    * Princess Béatrice de Broglie (born 1913)
    * Béatrice Ephrussi de Rothschild (1864–1934)
    * Bethsabée de Rothschild (1914–1999)
    * Carl Mayer von Rothschild (1788–1855)
    * Cécile Léonie Eugénie Gudule Lucie de Rothschild (1913–)
    * Charlotte de Rothschild
    * Charlotte Henriette de Rothschild (born 1955), British opera singer
    * Charlotte von Rothschild(1818–84)
    * Count Charles-Emmanuel Lannes de Montebello (born 1942)
    * Charles Rothschild (1877–1923), banker and entomologist
    * Constance Flower, 1st Baroness of Battersea, (1843–1931)[citation needed]
    * David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley (1960–), Lord Great Chamberlain of England
    * David Mayer de Rothschild (b. 1978), billionaire[73] British adventurer and environmentalist
    * David René de Rothschild (born 1942)
    * Diane Cécile Alice Juliette de Rothschild (1907–)[citation needed]
    * Edmond Adolphe de Rothschild
    * Edouard Etienne de Rothschild, (born 1957)
    * Édouard Alphonse James de Rothschild (1868–1949) financier and polo player
    * Prince Edouard de La Tour d'Auvergne-Lauraguais, (1949–)
    * Edmond James de Rothschild (1845–1934)
    * Edmund Leopold de Rothschild (1916–2009)
    * Elie de Rothschild (1917–2007)
    * Princess Elisabeth de Broglie (1920–)
    * Elisabeth Clarice de Rothschild (born 1952)
    * Emma Rothschild (born 1948)
    * Esther de Rothschild (born 1979)
    * Evelina de Rothschild(1839–66)
    * Evelyn Achille de Rothschild (1886–1917), died fighting for the British army in World War I
    * Sir Evelyn de Rothschild (born 1931), banker
    * Count Gabriel Antoine Armand, (1908–1943), a soldier of the French Resistance.
    * Guy de Rothschild (1909–2007)
    * Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild (1839–1898)
    * Hannah Primrose, Countess of Rosebery née Hannah Rothschild (1851–1890)
    * Henry Herbert, 7th Earl of Carnarvon, (1924–2001)
    * Henri James de Rothschild (1872–1946)
    * Henry Herbert, 6th Earl of Carnarvon (1898–1987)
    * Duke Hélie Marie Auguste Jacques Bertrand Philippe, (1943), 10th Duke of Noailles
    * Henriette Rothschild (1791–1866) married Sir Moses Montefiore (1784–1885)
    * Count Henri de Gramont (1909–1994)[citation needed]
    * Hugh Cholmondeley, 6th Marquess of Cholmondeley (1919–90), Lord Great Chamberlain of England
    * Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild, (born 1936), investment banker
    * James Armand de Rothschild (1878–1957)
    * James Mayer Rothschild (1792–1868)
    * Lady Lavinia Anne Alix de Rothschild, of the Rothschild and Borghese family
    * Neil Primrose, 7th Earl of Rosebery (1929–)
    * Neil James Archibald Primrose (1882–1917), MP, killed fighting in World War I
    * Nelly Rachel de Rothschild (born 1947)
    * Baroness Nica de Koenigswarter (née Baroness Pannonica Rothschild) (1913–1988), patron of bebop and jazz writer - often called "The Jazz Baroness"
    * Baron Léon Lambert (1929–1987), Belgium art collector
    * Leopold de Rothschild (1845–1917)
    * Leopold David de Rothschild (1927–)
    * Leonora de Rothschild (1837–1911)
    * Lionel Nathan Rothschild (1808–1879)
    * Louis Nathaniel de Rothschild (1882–1955)
    * Countess Magdalene-Sophie von Attems, (1927–)
    * Marie-Hélène de Rothschild (1927–94), French socialite
    * Mayer Amschel de Rothschild (1818–1874)
    * Marguerite Corisande Alexandrine Marie de Gramont (1920–1998), later Baroness de Gunzbourg, daughter of the Count de Gramont, Officier of Légion d'honneur and Croix de guerre
    * Maria Beatrice de Rothschild, grand-daughter of the Princess de Marsiconovo
    * Miriam Louisa Rothschild (1908–2005), famous entomologist and zoologist
    * Lionel Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild of the United Kingdom (1868–1937)
    * Nathaniel de Rothschild (1812–1870)
    * Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777–1836)
    * Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild of the United Kingdom (1840–1915)
    * Nathaniel Charles Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild of the United Kingdom (born 1936)
    * Nathaniel Robert de Rothschild (1946), French financier
    * Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild of the United Kingdom (1910–1990)
    * Nathaniel Philip Rothschild (born 1971), a co-chairman of Atticus Capital, a £20 billion hedge fund[75]
    * Nathaniel Anselm von Rothschild (1836–1905), Austrian socialite
    * Sir Philip Sassoon, 3rd Baronet (1888–1939), British First Commissioner of Works and Under-Secretary of State for Air
    * Count Philippe de Nicolay (born 1955), great-grandson of Salomon James de Rothschild, he is a director of the Rothschild group.[44]
    * Philippe de Rothschild (1902–1988), vintner
    * Philippine de Rothschild (born 1935), vintner
    * Jacqueline Rebecca Louise de Rothschild, born 6 November 1911, chess and tennis champion
    * Harry Primrose, 6th Earl of Rosebery (1882–1974) Earl of Roseberry
    * Raphael de Rothschild (1976–1997)
    * Salomon James de Rothschild, (1835–1864)
    * Lady Serena Dunn Rothschild, (born 1935)
    * Countess Sophie von Löwenstein-Scharffeneck, (1896–1978)
    * Lady Sybil Grant (1879–1955), British writer
    * Sybil Cholmondeley, Marchioness of Cholmondeley, (1894–1989)
    * Valentine Noémi von Springer, (1886, d. 1969)
    * Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild
    * Victoria Katherine Rothschild (1953–)
    * Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, zoologist
    * Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild
    * Zachary Ryan de Rothschild (born 1997)

Prominent marriages into the family include, amongst many others:

    This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

    * Maurice Ephrussi (1849–1916), of the Ephrussi banking dynasty
    * Ben Goldsmith (1980–), son of financier James Goldsmith
    * Anita Patience Guinness (1957), of the Guinness family, married Amschel Mayor James Rothschild[77]
    * Cora Guggenheim (1873–1956), of the Guggenheim family, married Louis F. Rothschild (1869–1957)
    * Abraham Oppenheim (1804–1878), of the Oppenheim Family, married Charlotte Beyfus (1811–1887)
    * Aline Caroline de Rothschild (1865–1909) married Sir Edward Sassoon, 2nd Baronet, of Kensington Gore (1856–1912), of the Sassoon family
    * Carola Warburg Rothschild (1894–1987), philanthropist, born into the Warburg family
    * Sara Louise de Rothschild (born 1834), married the Baron Raimondo Franchetti (born 1829)
    * Baron Eugène de Rothschild (1884-1976) married Countess Kitty Wolff de Schonborn-Bucheim (1885-)
    * Bertha Clara de Rothschild (1862) married Prince Alexandre de Wagram
    * Bertha Juliet de Rothschild (1870) married Baron Emmanuel Leonino
    * Lili Jeanette von Goldschimdt-Rothschild (1883-1929), married Baron Philippe Schey de Koromla
    * Elisabeth Pelletier de Chambure (1902–1945), the only member of the Rothschild family to die in the holocaust.
    * Antoine Agénor Armand (1879–1962), of the Naples Rothschild lines, married Countess Élaine Greffulhe, daughter of Princess Élisabeth de Caraman-Chimay
    * Hannah Mayer Rothschild (1815–1864) married Hon. Henry Fitzroy (1807–1859), of the family of the Dukes of Grafton
    * Edouard Alphonse James de Rothschild (1868-1949) married in 1905 the Baroness Alice Germaine de Halphen (1884-1979)
    * Count François de Nicolay (1919–1963), of the House of Nicolay, married Marie-Hélène Naila Stephanie Josina van Zuylen van Nyevelt
    * Marguerite de Rothschild in 1878 married Antoine Alfred Agénor, 11th Duc de Gramont, (1851–1921),
    * Dorothy de Rothschild (1895–1988), on her death she left the largest probated estate in Britain
    * George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon married Almina Victoria Maria Alexandra Wombwell, the illegitimate daughter of Alfred de Rothschild
    * Pauline de Rothschild (1908–1976), fashion designer and translator of Elizabethan poetry
    * In 1923, James Nathaniel Charles Léopold Rothschild, son of Henri James Nathaniel Charles Rothschild and Mathilde Sophie Henriette de Weisweiller, married Claude du Pont of the Du Pont family.
    * Lady Irma Pauahi Wodehouse (1897), of the Wodehouse family
    * Prince Louis Philippe Berthier, (1836–1911)
    * Jeanne de Rothschild (1908–2003), actress
    * Nadine de Rothschild (1932- ), French actress and author
    * Princess Sophie de Ligne (1957–), of the House of Ligne, married Philippe de Nicolay (born 1955), a director of the Rothschild group,[44] and the great-grandson of Salomon James de Rothschild
    * Liliane de Rothschild (1916–2003) art collector
    * David Rene de Rothschild married Princess Olimpia Anna Aldobrandini, of the House of Borghese and the House of Bonaparte.
    * Baron Robert Philippe de Rothschild married Nelly Beer, a great-grand-niece of Giacomo Meyerbeer
    * Richard Francis Roger Yarde-Buller, 4th Baron Churston of Churston Ferrers and Lupton, (1910–1991), married Olga Alice Muriel Rothschild
    * Serena Dunn Rothschild (b. 1935), grand-daughter of Sir James Hamet Dunn, 1st Baronet
    * Lynn Forester de Rothschild (born 1954), business woman
    * Edward Maurice Stonor (1885–1930), son of Francis Stonor, 4th Baron Camoys
    * Lady Pamela Wellesley Grant, (born 1912), great-great-grand-daughter of The Duke of Wellington, married Lieutenant Charles Robert Archibald Grant, great-great-grandson of Mayer Amschel de Rothschild
    * Baroness Rozsika Edle von Wertheimstein
    * Count Etienne van Zuylen van Nijevelt of the House of Van Zuylen van Nijevelt – married Baroness Hélène de Rothschild (1863–1947).
    * Baron Sigismund von Springer (1873–1927), married Baroness Valentine Noémi von Rothschild (1886–1969), after whom the asteroid 703 Noëmi is named
    * In 1943 Baron Elie Robert de Rothschild (1917–), married Lady Liliane Elisabeth Victoire Fould-Springer, grand-aunt of actress Helena Bonham Carter

No comments:

Post a comment